The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic on 11 March 2020.
In the UK, the Prime Minister (PM) announced the first national lockdown on 23 March 2020, ordering people to 'stay at home'. After an extension to the lockdown, schools in England began a phased re-opening on 1 June 2020 with the introduction of social distancing, contact isolation and 'bubbles'. 
A 'critical moment' on 30 September 2020 resulted in a second national lockdown on 31 October 2020 to 'prevent a medical and moral disaster'.
On 2 December 2020, the UK became the first country in the world to approve a COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use. In the last week of term the Department for Education (DfE) announced, from January 2021, teachers and pupils would have access to rapid testing to help keep schools open throughout the spring term; lateral flow tests would help detect asymptomatic cases and break chains of transmission.
After 'short and small' celebrations the PM stated that children would return to school on 4 January 2021. England entered a third national lockdown two days later. 
In February 2021, the Government published a 'roadmap' for lifting restrictions. Children returned to school on the 8 March 2021 and, after a week of national testing using rapid antigen lateral flow tests, face coverings became mandatory in classrooms. On the 17 May 2021, together with the further lifting of national restrictions, face coverings were no longer required in the classroom except in Lancashire where a new variant caused a continued situation, which required the Government to take further measures nationally by delaying the roadmap.
On 5 July 2021, to shouts of 'Hallelujah' in the Commons, a newly appointed Health Secretary told MPs that social distancing rules in England would be dropped from 19 July 2021, termed 'Freedom Day'. later that day the PM set out details of the final step of England's roadmap out of lockdown with a five point plan for 'living with COVID' moving from legal restrictions on human behaviour to allowing people to make 'informed decisions' on managing the virus; the PM asked: 'If we can't reopen our society in the next few weeks... when we be helped by the arrival of school holidays, we must ask ourselves when will we be able to reopen?'
On 6 July 2021, the Education Secretary announced a plan to maintain key protections but remove bubbles and contact isolation for students.

A selection of these pictures have been exhibited at locations around Europe as part of the photography organisation 'Shutter Hub's largescale project 'Postcards from Great Britain' - which set out to document and share aspects of British culture using social, political, historical, traditional and observational responses - and have been housed in libraries and archives around the world including: The British Embassy in The Hague, NL; The British Library; Cambridge University Library; DECK Library, Singapore; Historic England; Lightbox Photobook Library, Taiwan; National Library of Scotland; National Library of Wales; Portuguese Centre of Photography, Portugal; Trinity College Dublin; Victoria and Albert Museum, UK.
Act I
Office Divided. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Mrs Gornall and Mrs Gerrard, Teachers of Technology, Show How They Made Visors for the National Health Service (NHS) During the First National Lockdown in England in 2020. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Mrs Freer, Teacher of Technology, Shows How She Printed Visors for the National Health Service (NHS) During the First National Lockdown in England in 2020. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Design for NHS Face Visors for Cutting Out On a Laser Cutter. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Year 11 Student Uses the Smart Learning Suite, While Being Taught By Her Maths Teacher, Mrs Bennett, in Room 43. Penwortham Girls' High School, Lancashire, England. 2021. 2. Mr Bowles, Curriculum Leader of Geography, Demonstrates How He Collected Litter With Students Of Key Workers During the First National Lockdown in 2020. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Mrs Pomoroy, Headteacher, at Her Desk in Autumn. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Mrs Pomoroy's Office. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Terr[or]cotta: Red Tiles in Mr O'Neill's Office. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Planned Maintenance. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mr O'Neill, Premises Consultant. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Whole School Opening Plan. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Act II
Segregated Yard in Summer. Lancashire, England. 2020.
03 09 2020
BBC North West Tonight
00:00:00
INT. STUDIO
ANNABEL TIFFIN: Now nerves, excitement, and even fear are among the many emotions we’ve all felt on that first day of a new school year. But the big difference for the class, and teachers, of 2020 is that amidst the pandemic things are very different this time around. Now we’re going back to the primary school we’ve been following all week, in just a moment, but first Ian Haslam reports from Penwortham Girls’ High School in Preston.
EXT. SCHOOL ENTRANCE
IAN HASLAM (OVER): It’s been a long time coming but for these pupils. It was finally back to the old routine this morning, albeit with some differences.
IAN HASLAM: Schools across the region have been going back for the past few days now and today it’s the turn of Penwortham Girls’ High School. Start times are staggered, as is the norm these days, so first of all it was the lower school and now arriving is the upper school.
INT. SCHOOL CORRIDOR
KAREN POMOROY: Of course, no Headteacher in their wildest imagination imagined that they would be running a school during a pandemic. We’ve remained open, obviously, throughout lockdown to the children of key workers but we’ve been preparing for today right since June, July, and we’re determined to be positive, to exude confidence, and ensure that our students get a really warm welcome today.
EXT. SCHOOL ENTRANCE
IAN HASLAM (OVER): Once on the premises it’s hand washing time at new purpose built sinks.
IAN HASLAM: It’s nine o’clock. You’re back in school after so long are you excited?
SCHOOL PUPIL: Er, yes, yes. It’s very different. Erm, home learning was hard but it’s going to be good to get back into school.
IAN HASLAM: Are you excited?
SCHOOL PUPIL: Yeah.
IAN HASLAM: Yeah... that’s not a real ‘yeah’ that is it (LAUGHING)?
SCHOOL PUPIL: It is... sort of.
INT. CLASSROOM
IAN HASLAM (OVER): Inside school there have been safety modifications. Staff are reminded to social distance at the front of classrooms which are set out in rows with a designated space for each pupil. At the moment, face masks are optional changes have also had to be made to certain lessons.
INT. MUSIC CLASSROOM: CHILDREN PLAYING CHOPSTICKS
IAN HASLAM: Great chopstick playing... everyone (LAUGHING).
ALISON CATTANACH: We’ve all had to adapt our curriculum and so in order to be able to make music practical, and make live music, we’ve decided to buy every young lady in school a pair of chopsticks so that when we are in a non-music specialist room we can make music together.
INT. CORRIDOR
IAN HASLAM (OVER): For Year 11 pupils, a defining year starts here.
EXT. SCHOOL QUAD
YEAR 11 PUPIL: It’s lovely to be able to meet my friends and to get face on sessions with teachers and just get the full support of the school.
IAN HASLAM: It’s your GCSE exams year. It’s been a tough start but are you hopeful going forward now that your back?
YEAR 11 PUPIL: Year of course, I am. I mean... I trust this school and I’m glad to be back to this routine and hit the ground running with our GCSE’s
INT. CLASSROOM
IAN HASLAM (OVER): Meanwhile the school is preparing for any eventuality including uploading lessons for any students that might have to self-isolate at home.
INT. CORRIDOR
KAREN POMOROY: We’re just having to be as flexible as possible. Let’s not catastrophise about the future. Let’s just focus on today and I’m sure everything... eventually (looks up and crosses both fingers)... will be fine.
IAN HASLAM (OVER): And so far so good. Ian Haslam, BBC North West Tonight.
00:03:00
09 09 2020
BBC North West Tonight
00:00:00
INT. STUDIO
ROGER JOHNSON: Now the new school term may only be a few days old but already some are facing further disruption due to the pandemic. Pupils across the region have already had to return to remote learning from home to prevent the spread of COVID-19 after positive tests among their classmates. Peter Marshall has been to a school in Lancashire to find out how they are coping.
INT. CLASSROOM, CORRIDOR, ASSEMBLY HALL
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Penwortham Girls’ High School is a few days into the new normal, effectively running as five mini schools in one to keep pupils separated.
They’re in bubbles based either on small form groups for younger pupils or larger year groups for older pupils.
Movement around school is limited. Teachers, rather than classes, move room-to-room. If a class has to relocate, it’s escorted... and, with the need for social distancing, the assembly hall is now the staffroom.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
KAREN POMOROY: Everywhere we go it’s very calm, it’s very purposeful and that is how we want it to remain and even if we have to switch very quickly to sending some students home we want to ensure that we are still retaining that calm purposeful atmosphere in school for the rest of our students.
INFOGRAPHIC
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Here, they’ve not had any need to send a bubble home, so far, but elsewhere in the region there’s been disruption.
This isn’t an exhaustive list but across Greater Manchester around thirty two schools have sent some pupils away including Buile Hill Academy in Salford where Year 7 has been sent home.
In Lancashire six schools and colleges have been affected so far. On Merseyside five have had issues. Sudley Junior School where half the pupils are back at home and in South Cumbria Ormsgill School in Barrow has a small number of pupils and staff self-isolating pending test results.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): So how are pupils coping with the uncertainty knowing that at any stage they may end up back at home learning remotely?
SCHOOL PUPIL: Personally, I can concentrate on my school work so I think that’s good.
SCHOOL PUPIL: I think being taught in school is a lot better because we can ask teachers questions without having to go through emailing.
INT. CORRIDOR
PETER MARSHALL (OFF): Do you worry about your bubble having to go home?
SCHOOL PUPIL: Not really because I think we’ve got enough social distancing.
SCHOOL PUPIL: It worries me a little bit but I think we’ll be alright... yeah.
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Headteacher representatives say the situation can be managed effectively to keep impact on children limited.
ZOOM LINK: NAHT UNION FOR SCHOOL LEADERS
SIMON KIDWELL: I’ve no doubt that we will learn but we also have a year that we have disruption where certain groups of children have to go home and isolate for fourteen days and I think it’s our job as school leaders to make sure that disruption is minimised by providing high quality home learning, communicating with parents and just saying that we want to work together with you to make sure our communities are safe.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): At Penwortham, with staggered start and break times they hope the need to send pupils home can be avoided. Peter Marshall, BBC North West Tonight, Penwortham.
00:02:47
1. Outdoor Sink With Hot Water. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. 2 + 2 = ? Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
On The Case. Senior Assistant Headteacher's Mr Ramsdale and Mr Ward. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Get Up Stand Up. Mr Mellor and Mr Owen in the ICT Room. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Steven and Mark talk about building a network to sustain remote working, stripping computers from classrooms so that students could work remotely, Toots and The Maytals, and a Northern revolt. Recorded in the ICT Room on Friday 22 April 2022.
Segregated Yard in Autumn (Variation). Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Mrs McLean in Reception. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mrs Parker Working on Attendance. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Year 7 Lunch Break, Room 22 (detail). Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Still Life With Digestion Tablets, Honey, Paracetamol and Shoes. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Hazra Patel and Ambreen Mir, Catering Assistants, in the Kitchen. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Kim Nelson, Catering Assistant and Karen Eatough, Catering Supervisor, in the Kitchen. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Geraldine Gaskell, Catering Assistant, in the Dining Hall. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Zoom Meeting With Artist John Whalley. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. GB Olympian and Cirque du Soleil Acrobat, Marissa King, Demonstrates During a Zoom Session From Florida, United States. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 
The Dancing's Done. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Mrs Pearson, Data and Examinations Officer. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mrs Chohan in the Print Room. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Mr Mercer Invigilating the November Examination Series. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1.  Disused Lockers In Blue. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Disused Lockers In Blue (detail). Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 3. Disused Lockers In Green. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 4. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. Disused Lockers In Green (detail).
1. Isolation Chair With Donuts, Cake and Ice Cream. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Test Kits and PPE. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
COVID 19 Home Test Kit. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Ping Pong With PPE. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Davina and Sue. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Write ‘n’ Wipe Whiteboard With a Thank You Message to the Cleaners Found on a Corridor. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Reasons To Be Cheerful. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mrs Snowdon, Curriculum Leader of English, in Her Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. The BBC Visit. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Peter Marshall Reports for the BBC. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 3. A Class is Filmed. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 4. Key Stage 3 Students Are Interviewed by BBC News Reporter Peter Marshall. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 5. Year 11 Students Are Interviewed by BBC News Reporter Peter Marshall. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
This period will be described as a ‘critical moment’ just before a second national lockdown on the 31 October 2020.
The BBC call to report on the current situation.
10 11 2020
BBC North West Tonight
00:00:00
INT. CLASSROOM
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): It may look like a normal class... but if you look closely you’ll see the teacher is wearing a headset so she can also communicate with children who are learning from home while self-isolating.
Pupils and teachers at Penwortham Girls’ High School have been on a steep learning curve.
INT. LIBRARY
CAROL WOODHOUSE: Some days you come in and you’re expecting to teach a class of, say, thirty two Year 11’s and you’ve got thirty two Year 11 but sixteen are sat in front of you and sixteen are sat at home logged onto Teams... I think we’ve got through it with good humour, by being kind to each other, and just doing the best we can.
INT. CORRIDOR
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Since half term masks now have to be worn on corridors and communal areas and at any time the form group or Year group bubbles might have to be sent home if someone tests positive for COVID-19.
EXT. SCHOOL QUAD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER) Both Olivia and Tegan have had to learn from home in recent weeks.
OLIVIA: You don’t know if your lesson is going to continue, if there’s going to be technical issues, but at the end of the day at least the teachers are trying their utmost best to give you that same learning experience that you would get in school.
TEGAN: I think they’re definitely making sure that, for us, our Year 11 is going to be a memorable year rather than a stressful year and we can look back on it and think... yes, I’ve done the best I can do.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Nationally, the school watchdog Ofsted has been looking into the pandemic and school closures.
EXT. SCHOOL ENTRANCE
PETER MARSHALL (TO CAMERA): Ofsted’s report has found that some pupil’s concentration or their mental and physical stamina has reduced during the pandemic.
Some school leaders have reported that pupils appear fatigued or disconnected from learning.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): The Headteacher says that’s not the case here.
KAREN POMOROY: For most students... they... recognise that there is this level of uncertainty and so when they are here they want to make the most of every lesson and every opportunity they are given.
EXT. SCHOOL QUAD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Twins Alice and Libby agree.
LIBBY: It’s really the only time you get out of the house so it’s... pretty easy (questioning) to just stay focussed and try to get all the work done.
ALICE: Yeah, I think it’s actually easier to concentrate than it was before because you’re not with so many different friends.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): The Government’s launched a one billion pound COVID catch-up fund to support those children who need it.
INT. SCHOOL CORRIDOR
PETER MARSHALL (OVER): Peter Marshall, BBC North West Tonight, Penwortham.
00:02:23
1. Library Books Taped Up. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mrs Woodhouse, Associate Assistant Headteacher, Is Interviewed by BBC News Reporter Peter Marshall. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Mrs Pomoroy, Headteacher, Is Interviewed by BBC News Reporter Peter Marshall. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Mr Mellor, ICT Manager in His Office as News of the Oxford Vaccine Breaks on BBC News. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Steven and Mark talk about changeability, using existing technology to bring those working remotely into the classroom, thoughts on ICT, vaccines, getting COVID, and Track and Trace. Recorded in the ICT Room on Friday 22 April 2022.
Mrs Hall, Deputy Headteacher, in Her Biology Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Mr Herbert, Associate Assitant Headteacher, in His History Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Mrs Sweeney, Lead Practitioner/Curriculum Leader of Mathematics, in Her Classroom in Winter. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Sixty Seven Bags Containing Essential Items for Vulnerable Pupils. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Distributing Essential Items for Vulnerable Pupils. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 
1. Coronavirus Testing for Schools and Colleges From January. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Cleaner's Cupboard on the Last Day of Term Before Christmas. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 
Office Decorated. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Entrance to the Assembly Hall. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Assembly Hall Now the Staffroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
1. Workstations Under the Stage. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Assembly Hall Now the Staffroom (From the Stage). Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Workstations Behind Tape. Lancashire, North West England. 2020. 2. Zoombox. Lancashire, North West England. 2020.
Segregated Yard in Winter. Lancashire, England. 2021.
Act III
Seven Disposable Sampling Swabs. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Mrs Gornall, Teacher of Technology, Dons Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Non-Aerosol Generating Procedures (AGPs) Specific to COVID-19. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Mrs Murray, Senior Admin Officer, Enters Pupils into the GOV.UK Coronavirus Test Site. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 3. SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Lateral Flow Qualitative Testing Bay in the Gym. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Mr Welsh, Site Supervisor, Prepares an Extraction Tube With SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Lateral Flow Solution. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Preparing an Extraction Tube With SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Lateral Flow Solution. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Lateral Flow Qualitative Testing in the Gym in Winter. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
08 03 2021
BBC North West Today
00:00:00
EXT. SCHOOL ENTRANCE
ANDY GILL (OVER): Year seven pupils arrive at Penwortham Girls’ this morning, hand washing before their allowed in, and a teacher to tell them which classroom to head for... The pupils we spoke to were pleased to be back after more than two months home schooling.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
SCHOOL PUPIL: I’m very happy because I’ve missed all my friends and home schooling just isn’t the same.
ANDY GILL (OFF): Were you nervous at all about coming back?
SCHOOL PUPIL: A little bit because we’ve been home for so long and now were just coming back to school, so a bit.
ANDY GILL (OVER): Older pupils arrive at a different entrance and at a staggered time to ensure social distancing. Those who normally take their GCSEs this year will have their grades assessed by the teachers rather than by exam.
GARY BOWLES: I think, certainly, there are challenges for our senior students who now have to go through a totally new system in terms of achieving grades for their GCSEs and that going to be new both for staff and for them.
TEGAN: I think, obviously it would have been nice if we had our original GCSE plan but with how COVID’s gone, I think it’s the best possible option that we’ve got.
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
ANDY GILL (OVER): The Government’s considering shorter holidays and longer school days to help pupils who’ve missed lessons but the head here says it would be wrong to be too negative about their progress during lockdown.
KAREN POMOROY: There’s too much out there about how much they’ve lost, how much they need to catch up on, and I think we’ve just got to get that balance and, you know, give these students the credit they deserve. They have been working hard for the past year.
INT. DINING HALL
ANDY GILL (OVER): These pupils are waiting for the results of COVID tests before they’re allowed into class. Pupils face regular testing and here that’s one of the hardest logistical challenges. The school has brought in volunteer parents to help. 
Andy Gill, BBC North West Today, Penwortham.
00:01:57
1. Mandy Ingham, BBC Camera Operator, Captures a Wireless Voice-Over From BBC Reporter, Andy Gill, Who Is Sitting in His Car. Due to BBC COVID Guidelines, The Reporter and Camera Operator Are Not Allowed To Sit Together in the Production Van. The Recording Will Be Used in a BBC News Story on Children Returning to School, Mass Testing and Compulsory Face Coverings in the Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Mandy Ingham, BBC Camera Operator, and Andy Gill, BBC Reporter, Prepare a News Story on Children Returning to School, Mass Testing and Compulsory Face Coverings in the Classroom. Due to BBC COVID Guidelines, The Reporter and Camera Operator Are Not Allowed To Sit Together in the Production Van. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 3. Mandy Ingham, BBC Camera Operator, Edits Footage for The BBC News on Children Returning to School, Mass Testing and Compulsory Face Coverings in the Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Mrs Cattanach, Associate Assistant Headteacher, On Morning Duty at the Entrance for Year 7. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Handing Out a Facemask On Morning Duty at the Entrance for Year 7. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Year 7 Class in Room 22 (Left). Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. A Year 7 Class in Room 22 (Right). Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Year 8 Class in Room 31 (Left). Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. A Year 8 Class in Room 31 (Right). Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Year 9 Class in Room 25. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. A Year 9 Class in Room 26. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. A Year 10 Class in Room 47. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. A Year 11 Class in Room 1. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
COVID 19 Self-Test (Rapid Antigen Test) Kits Ready To Be Issued to Year 7 Students. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Act IV
1. COVID-19 Self Test Rapid Antigen Test Box. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. COVID-19 Self Test Rapid Antigen Test Contents. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Donuts and Testing Kits in the Isolation Room. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Cake, Ice Cream and Testing Bays in the Isolation Room. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Yellow Bags, Gloves and Sanitiser For Use When Marking Books. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Classroom Equipment Separated By Classroom To Avoid Cross-Contamination. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Miss Hasan, Teacher of Mathematics, in Her Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Email. 2. Mrs Muncaster, Assistant Business Manager, in the Office. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Miss Garlick, Teacher of English, in Her Drama Room. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Actors From Touring Quantum Theatre After a Performance of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Rev Adam Thomas and Rev Brian McConkey Lead Prayer at Whalley Abbey With Students From Penwortham Girls' High School. Whalley Abbey, Whalley, Clitheroe, Lancashire, England. 2021. 2. Miss Morris, Assistant Curriculum Leader and Lead Teacher of Art, Painting a Mural in the School Yard. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Day Of Hope. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Lateral Flow Qualitative Testing in the Gym in Summer. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Mr Owen, ICT and Music Technician, Enters Pupil Results into the GOV.UK Coronavirus Test Site. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Act V
Injection Site of COVID 19 Vaccine. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Vaccine Day
Each vaccine requires a specific methodology of preparation. The pupils at Penwortham Girls’ High School were administed, on 14 October 2021, syringes of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. The following describes the process prior to immediate administration.
The procedure covers the process from the removal of vials of thawed vaccine from the outer carton in the refrigerator up until the point of administration. This includes assigning a room temperature expiry, the dilution of the concentrate vial, and the preparation of syringes for administration.
The procedure On Vaccine Day followed the following model: One person performed dilution and passed the diluted vial to a vaccinator who drew up individual doses into syringes.

Procedure
1. Removal of vaccines from original carton
1.1 Complete a ‘Concentrate room temperature bag expiry label’ with: 
a) Time and date removed from the refrigerator. Use 24-hour clock format.
b) Time and date of expiry. The expiry is 2 hours from the point the concentrated vaccine vials are removed from the fridge.
c) Batch number of the concentrated vaccine vials.
d) Signature of person completing the label.
1.2 Attach the label to the bag containing the concentrated vaccine vials .
1.3 A second person must check that:
a) All details on the label are correct.
b) The correct vaccine has been selected by confirming the product name on the vial(s).
1.4 The second person must document this check by signing the label.
1.5 Take the bag to the vaccine preparation station and place it in the empty lidded box labelled ‘CONCENTRATED VACCINE VIALS’. 
1.6 Confirm this box is empty before adding the new bag of vials. Close the lid on the box.
1.7 Update the stock management system on Foundry.
Local decisions may be taken not to use bags as described above, but any local process must achieve segregation and expiry time control.

2. Workstation preparation
2.1 Confirm the preparation workstation is clear and free from any other vials of vaccine.
2.2 Ensure a yellow lidded sharps bin with sufficient free capacity is available.
2.3 Ensure indelible pen is available.
2.4 Put on apron.
2.5 Clean workstation with a disinfectant wipe and discard into a clinical waste bin.
2.6 [Insert statement on local practice for sanitising hands / donning gloves for preparing injectable medicines]
Workstation Preparation by NHS Staff on Vaccine Day. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
​​​​​​​3. Dilution
3.1 Gather the following materials required to perform dilution: sodium chloride 0.9% ampoule 5mL X 1, 2mL or 3mL syringe and 21g needle X 1, sterile single use 70% alcohol swab x2.
3.2 Remove a single vial of concentrated Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (Comirnaty) from the lidded box labelled ‘CONCENTRATED VACCINE VIALS’. Close the lid of the box.
a) When removing the concentrated vaccine vial check the assigned room temperature expiry on the grip lock bag of concentrated vaccine vials has not been exceeded.
b) Only one vaccine vial must be in use in the preparation workstation at any one time.
3.3 Allow the vaccine vial to come to room temperature if immediately removed from the fridge.
3.4 Slowly invert the vial 10 times to thoroughly mix the concentrate suspension, DO NOT shake. One inversion requires the vial to be fully rotated back to an upright position. Prior to dilution, the thawed dispersion may contain white to off-white opaque amorphous particles.
3.5 Cleanse the vaccine vial stopper with a single use 70% alcohol swab and discard the swab into a clinical waste bin. Set the concentrated vaccine vial to one side.
3.6 Cleanse the top and shoulders of 5mL ampoule of preservative free sodium chloride 0.9% with a single use 70% alcohol swab and discard the swab into a clinical waste bin.
3.7 Attach s 21g needle to a 2mL syringe.
3.8 Using aseptic technique, snap the top off a 5ml of preservative free sodium chloride 0.9% ampoule and use a 2mL or 3mL syringe and use the 2mL syringe and 21g needle to draw up 1.8 mL of preservative free sodium chloride 0.9%.
3.9 Check the volume sodium chloride 0.9% drawn up is 1.8mL. [May require independent 2nd check depending on local policy].
3.10 Dispose of the remainder of the 5ml preservative free sodium chloride 0.9% ampoule into a yellow lidded sharps bin.
3.11 Dilute the concentrate vaccine vial by adding the 1.8 mL of preservative free sodium chloride 0.9% to the vial. During the addition, keep the needle tip in the air space of the vial at all times. Equalise pressure by adding the sodium chloride 0.9% in gradual steps and allowing air to vent back into the syringe repeatedly until all of the sodium chloride 0.9% has been added and there is 1.8mL air in the syringe.
N.B. If using a syringe with an auto retracting needle, depressing the plunger fully will cause the needle to retract prematurely. If the above technique is not used the full 1.8mL may therefore not be added to the vial.
To minimise the risk of stopper coring and particles entering the vial: 
a) Insert the needle vertically through the centre ring of the vial stopper. 
b) Do not twist or rotate the needle once inserted.
3.12 Dispose of syringe and needle into a yellow lidded sharps bin.
3.13 Slowly invert the vial 10 times to mix contents thoroughly, DO NOT shake. One inversion requires the vial to be fully rotated back to an upright position.
3.14 The diluted vaccine should present as an off-white solution with no particulates visible. Discard the diluted vaccine if particulates or discolouration are present.
3.15 Check if the vaccine vial is from a batch with Regulation 174 authorisation or is the licensed Comirnaty brand as pictured below in Table 1.
a) If you have the Regulation 174 authorised stock of the vaccine, write the time / date of dilution on the vial label as shown below in red below. Use 24 hour clock format.
b) If you have the Comirnaty branded stock of the vaccine, calculate and write the time / date of expiry on the vial label as shown below in red below. Use 24 hour clock format.
c) The expiry is 6 hours from the point of dilution, but the vial should still be used as soon as practically possible.  
3.16 Do not remove another vial of concentrated vaccine from the lidded box until the vial of diluted vaccine has left the preparation workspace / been discarded.
Preparing To Perform Dilution, the Vial Is Slowly Inverted Ten Times to Thoroughly Mix the Concentrate Solution. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Performing the Dilution of Concentrated Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Using Aseptic Technique on Vaccine Day. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
After the Diluted Vaccine Is Checked for Discolouration and Particulates, the Time and Date of Expiry Is Calculated and Written on the Vial Label; The Expiry Is Six Hours From the Point of Dilution but the Vial Should Be Used as Soon as Practically Possible. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
NHS Workstation on Vaccine Day. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
​​​​​​​4. Withdrawal into syringes
4.1 Gather the following materials required to prepare syringes:
a) Diluted Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (Comirnaty) vial X 1.
b) 1ml syringe with integrated 23g x 25mm needle X 6.
c) Sterile single use 70% alcohol swab X 6.
​​​​​​​​​​4.2 Check the vial has not expired.  It must be within 6 hours of the handwritten time of dilution on the label.
4.3 Cleanse the vial stopper with a single use 70% alcohol swab, and discard swab in a clinical waste bin.
4.4 Using aseptic technique, draw up 0.3mL of the diluted vaccine using a new 1ml syringe with integrated 23g x 25mm needle.
N.B.21g x 38mm or 23g x 38mm needle and 1ml syringe should be used for administering the vaccine to morbidly obese individuals.
4.5 Adjust to remove air bubbles with the needle still in the vial to avoid a loss of diluted vaccine.
4.6 Check volume withdrawn is 0.3mL. [May require independent 2nd check depending on local policy].
4.7 Visually inspect the syringes for particles and leaks. Discard if these are observed.
4.8 The newly filled syringe must be used for immediate administration. [Local risk assessment required to manage risk of needle stick injury].
4.9 Steps 4.2 to 4.8 may be repeated a further five times to produce a total of six syringes from each diluted vaccine vial. Each time the vial bung is punctured, this should be in a different location to previous points of puncture on the bung. 
If the amount of vaccine remaining in the vial cannot provide a full dose of 0.3 mL, discard the vial and any excess volume. Do not pool excess vaccine from multiple vials.
4.10 Once empty, or if expiry has been exceeded, discard the used diluted vaccine vial into a yellow lidded sharps bin.
4.11 At the end of the session, remove all unused vials from the lidded box and discard along with the labelled grip lock bag into a yellow lidded sharps bin. Vials must not be stored between sessions or returned to the refrigerator.
Outer cartons must have their labels defaced using permanent black marker pens, and must be disposed of via the confidential waste stream. Alternatively, packaging must be stored in a secure container(s) and shredded on-site.  This is due to the risk of theft of empty packaging.​​​​​​​
Diluted Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Vials X 1, 1ml Syringe With Integrated 23g X 25mm Needle X 6, Label Showing the Time and Date of Expiry; The Withdrawal of 0.3mL Full Dose Vaccine Can Be Repeated To Produce a Total of Six Syringes. Excess Volume Is Discarded and Reported on Foundary. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
1. Withdrawal Into Syringe of Diluted Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine For Immediate Administration on Vaccine Day. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Administering a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
5. Dealing with deviations from this procedure
5.1 Any deviations from this procedure must be reported to the Nominated Responsible Person who can then escalate to the Primary Care Lead Pharmacist or Lead GP.
5.2 Where vaccine is discarded, information must be reported on Foundry with the appropriate code.
Workstation Preparation by NHS Staff on Vaccine Day. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.

Supporting Documents
PVH3.1 – Pfizer BioNTech Vaccine Preparation Work Instruction (Starting from Refrigerator).
PVH3.2 - Vaccine Supervision Checklist.

Glossary of terms
Foundry: a web-based stock control system that is used at PCN Designated Site.
Lead GP: Lead doctor at the PCN Designated Site responsible for the safe and secure handling and management of medicines within the site.
Nominated Responsible Person: named and suitably trained team member at each vaccination site who has been delegated operational responsibility for oversight of ordering, receipt, storage and safe handling of vaccines and medicines by the Lead GP aided by the Primary Care Lead Pharmacist.
PCN Designated Site: An approved local vaccination site that meets the core requirements for COVID-19 vaccination according to the Enhanced Service Specification.
Primary Care Lead Pharmacist: the pharmacist lead for a locality in primary care, as agreed by the Regional Chief Pharmacist and often being the CCG lead pharmacist, who is responsible for supporting the Lead GP to deliver the governance requirements.
Suitably trained members of staff: Staff that have completed the requisite national training and been assessed as competent to undertake the task.
1. Timers for the COVID-19 Vaccination of Children. Lancashire, North West England. 2021. 2. Children Are Asked To Wait Fifteen Minutes After the COVID-19 Vaccination in the Event of a Serious Allergic Reaction. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
An NHS Nurse Tends to a Group of Children Who Are Waiting Fifteen Minutes After Vaccination in the Event of a Serious Allergic Reaction to the COVID-19 Vaccine. Crash Mats Are Laid Out in Preparation. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Waste Disposal After Mass Testing. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
A Carbon Dioxide Monitor in Room 22. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Mrs Khanji at the End of Invigilating the Year 11 Mock Examinations. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
BBC North West Tonight
00:00:00
INT. STUDIO
ROGER JOHNSON: A leading teaching union is warning that high rates of staff absence is having a major impact in schools, but Penwortham Girls’ High School in Preston says that despite staff shortages and low pupil attendance it is determined to stay open. We’ve followed the school throughout the pandemic – this is all COVID related of course – so how are the staff and pupils coping now? Nazia Mogra has quite literally been back to school today.
INT. OFFICE
ANNABEL MOONEY: Good morning, Penwortham Girls’ High School.
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): It’s eight am. The office is already taking calls from teachers and pupils who have tested positive for Coronavirus.
ABBABEL MOONEY: Since we’ve come back from Christmas break we have had several staff test positive.
EXT. SCHOOL ENTRANCE
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): It’s a juggling act and for Headteacher Karen, no two days are the same.
INT. CORRIDOR 
NAZIA MOGRA: So the bells just gone. Tell me what’s staffing looking like for you today.
KAREN POMOROY: We’ve got four staff who have returned today, so that’s fantastic. So, that means, at the minute, I’ve only got four staff off. At the moment myself... I’m doing a lot more teaching because one of my history teachers is off. We have some part time staff who are willing to come in and we have some regular supply teachers, but supply is really, really difficult.
NAZIA MOGRA: So how has teaching changed then?
KAREN POMOROY: Ah, well we try and keep it as normal as possible but a typical example might be this Friday gone when we had two classes being taught together in the hall by my Head of Geography. Our attendance is around ninety per cent, which is really low for us as a school.
INT. SCIENCE CLASSROOM
CARLA: There’s been quite a few pupils off, quite a few teachers as well.
ELLIE: They’ve been putting the lessons on to Class Charts, which is where all our homework goes on. So, then the pupils that are off can access the work.
EXT. SCHOOL QUAD
ELLIE: (OVER) (CONT’D): It is cold and rainy so there’s been quite a lot of wet breaks so we’re separated into different areas.
INT. SCIENCE CLASSROOM
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): Mrs Hall is the Deputy Head and a science teacher.
SHARON HALL: Clearly, we do have some girls who are at home self-isolating. What we’ve had to do since the Omicron pandemic is to focus on some of the really key things that students really need to know and communicate that whether they are in school or at home.
INT. SCHOOL CORRIDOR
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): Christine’s job is to make sure surfaces are clean. She was brought in as an extra pair of hands.
CHRISTINE: We have to just keep wiping all of the surfaces. What the kids might touch... toilets.
INT. SCIENCE CLASSROOM
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): Gerry’s job is to make sure everything from testing, safety, to cleaning runs like clockwork. Today he’s checking the ventilation around the school with one of these... a CO2 monitor.
INT. ASSEMBLY HALL
GERRY O’NEILL: Well, ventilation is key. So, it's basically walking around the school on a constant basis just observing... are the windows open, are the doors open?
INT. SCHOOL FOYER
KAREN POMOROY: The masks gone... again, would be great but who knows? We’ll just have to wait and see.
NAZIA MOGRA: And maybe some more teachers back?
KAREN POMOROY: Oh, I hope so (laughing)!
EXT. SCHOOL YARD
NAZIA MOGRA (OVER): With everyday bringing new challenges this school hopes it can continue to keep its door open.
Nazia Mogra, BBC North West Tonight, in Preston.
INT. STUDIO
ROGER JOHNSON: When I said Nazia quite literally went back to school – I know people say literally all the time – but she really did because Penwortham Girls’ High is her old school, so nice for her to go back and see some familiar faces today.
00:03:15
Miss Mooney, Admin Officer, at Her Desk. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Mrs Kenyon, Office Manager and Headteacher's PA, at Her Desk. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Mrs Pomoroy, Headteacher, Is Interviewed by BBC News Producer and Presenter Nazia Mogra. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
1. Richard Pearson, BBC Senior Camera Operator, Films a Carbon Dioxide Monitor in a Science Laboratory. Lancashire, North West England. 2022. 2. BBC News Producer and Presenter Nazia Mogra Interviews the Head Girl and Deputy Head Girl in Their Science Laboratory. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Richard Pearson, BBC Senior Camera Operator, Films Christine Cleaning Surfaces. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Mr O'Neill, Premises Consultant, Is Interviewed by BBC News Producer and Presenter Nazia Mogra. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Miss Starkie, Teacher of English, in Her Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2021.
Miss Brooks, Teacher of Religious Studies, in Her Classroom. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Jim Wilkinson. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Year 11 Student Leadership. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Malakhiyah. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Year 11 Leavers Assembly. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
SOS. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
The Cast and Crew of The Sound of Music Production. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
Mr Turner. Lancashire, North West England. 2022.
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